Package Drinking Water System
The demand of water is increasing year after year. The per
capita consumption of water has increased and given the limited resource of
fresh water it is difficult for the countries to make available its population
the fresh water. Keeping this situation in mind many industries have set up
mineral water plant in order to obtain fresh drinking water.
The first step is water purification . Water obtained from the
external source is allowed to pass through the purification unit and then stored
in a stainless tank. Passed through the purification plant and stored in a
stainless steel tank. After purification water is taken to the bottling section.
Bottling is done as a continuous operation. Purification is followed by Rinsing,
Filling and Capping. The unit automatically fills, rinses, and screws the cap on
it. Finally mineral water is labeled, packed and marketed.
Process of Mineral Water Plant
Processing mineral water from underground water resource or other resources goes
as follows. Motor pump is used to draw water from theses sources or source which
is transported to the source water reservoir. Coagulation chemical is added to
remove the settled colloidal and suspended materials contaminated in the water.
Water is then sterilized using oxidants like chlorine or other chemicals to kill
harmful bacteria and microorganism.
Filtration is the next step. Using filtration system like Quartz Sand Filtration
System gives good purifying results. After purification water contains very
little amount of suspended solids.
For further purification, water is absorbed on the activated carbon which
absorbs most pollutants dissolved in water. This also helps in the removal of
the odors and helps in improving the flavor of the water.
After being purified water softening is done by passing water through the tank
containing sodium ion. The tank consist of resin pellets and the softening is
done by ion exchange method Water still contains small micro pollutants that are
removed by passing them through tanks that are meant for this purpose.
Apart from this method reverse osmosis process is also used for obtaining pure
water. In this process water is purified by using semi permeable membrane.
Purified water is sterilized or disinfected and then packed for market.
The advantages of Bottled Water include:
An emergency source of water in the event your primary water
source fails or becomes contaminated.
A convenient source of usually safe water for drinking outside of the home.
Bottled water, since it does not contain chlorine, and may contain a mix of
minerals to enhance flavor, may taste better than untreated tap water.
Most bottled water will contain fewer contaminants than untreated tap water.
Major Techniques used in package drinking water
Ultra Violet Light:
Water passes through a clear chamber where it is exposed to Ultra Violet (UV)
Light. UV light effectively destroys bacteria and viruses. However, how well the
UV system works depends on the energy dose that the organism absorbs. If the
energy dose is not high enough, the organism’s genetic material may only be
damaged rather than disrupted.
The advantages of using UV include:
No known toxic or significant nontoxic byproducts introduced
Removes some organic contaminants
Leaves no smell or taste in the treated water
Requires very little contact time (seconds versus minutes for chemical disinfection)
Improves the taste of water because some organic contaminants and nuisance
microorganisms are destroyed
Many pathogenic microorganisms are killed or rendered inactive.
Does not affect minerals in water
Water Softeners and deionizers:
Water softeners operate on the ion exchange process (specifically a cation exchange process where + ions are exchanged). In this process, water passes through a media bed, usually sulfonated polystyrene beads. The beads are supersaturated with sodium (a positive ion). The ion exchange process takes place as hard water passes through the softening material. The hardness minerals (positively charged Calcium and Magnesium ions) attach themselves to the resin beads while sodium on the resin beads is released simultaneously into the water. When the resin becomes saturated with calcium and magnesium, it must be recharged. The recharging is done by passing a concentrated salt (brine) solution through the resin. The concentrated sodium replaces the trapped calcium and magnesium ions which are discharged in the waste water. Softened water is not recommended for watering plants, lawns, and gardens due to its elevated sodium content.
The advantages of water softeners include:
The nuisance factor of hard water is reduced.
some other other cations like barium, radium and iron may be reduced depending
on the manufacturer's specifications
Water Deionizers use both Cation and Anion Exchange to exchange both positive and negative ions with H+ or OH- ions respectively, leading to completely demineralized water. Deionizers do not remove uncharged compounds from water, and are often used in the final purification stages of producing completely pure water for medical, research, and industrial needs.
Filtration system filters employ a matrix (generally small granules) of a zinc/copper alloy, which allegedly eliminates contaminants from water by utilizing electrochemical oxidation reduction.
Chemical properties of KDF include its alleged ability to:
Remove chlorine (actually changes free chlorine to a less active form)
Kill algae and fungi
Control bacterial growth in the filter
Remove hydrogen sulfide, iron, lead, cadmium, aluminum, mercury, arsenic and
other inorganic compounds
Partially reduce hardness
The formation of oxygen into ozone occurs with the use of energy. This process is carried out by an electric discharge field as in the CD-type ozone generators (corona discharge simulation of the lightning), or by ultraviolet radiation as in UV-type ozone generators (simulation of the ultra-violet rays from the sun). In addition to these commercial methods, ozone may also be made through electrolytic and chemical reactions.
Ozone is a naturally occurring component of fresh air. It can be produced by the ultraviolet rays of the sun reacting with the Earth's upper atmosphere (which creates a protective ozone layer), by lightning, or it can be created artificially with an ozone generator.
The ozone molecule contains three oxygen atoms whereas the normal oxygen molecule contains only two. Ozone is a very reactive and unstable gas with a short half-life before it reverts back to oxygen. Ozone is the most powerful and rapid acting oxidizer man can produce, and will oxidize all bacteria, mold and yeast spores, organic material and viruses given sufficient exposure.
The advantages of using Ozone include:
Ozone is primarily a disinfectant that effectively kills biological contaminants.
Ozone also oxidizes and precipitates iron, sulfur, and manganese so they can be
filtered out of solution.
Ozone will oxidize and break down many organic chemicals including many that
cause odor and taste problems.
Ozonation produces no taste or odor in the water.
Since ozone is made of oxygen and reverts to pure oxygen, it vanishes without
trace once it has been used. In the home, this does not matter much, but when
water companies use ozone to disinfect the water there is no residual disinfectant,
so chlorine or another disinfectant must be added to minimize microbial growth
during storage and distribution
Reverse Osmosis (RO):
Water pressure is used to force water molecules through a membrane that has extremely tiny pores, leaving the larger contaminants behind. Purified water is collected from the "clean" side of the membrane, and water containing the concentrated contaminants is flushed down the drain from the "contaminated" side. The average RO system is a unit consisting of a sediment/chlorine pre filter, the reverse-osmosis membrane, a water storage tank, and an activated-carbon post filter.
The advantages of Reverse Osmosis include:
Reverse osmosis significantly reduces salt, most other inorganic material present
in the water, and some organic compounds. With a quality carbon filter to remove
any organic materials that get through the filter, the purity of the treated water
approaches that produced by distillation.
Microscopic parasites (including viruses) are usually removed by properly
functioning RO units, but any defect in the membrane would allow these
organisms to flow undetected into the "filtered" water - they are not
recommended for use on biologically unsafe water.
Though slower than a carbon or sediment water filter, RO systems can typically
purify more water per day than distillers and are less expensive to operate and
Reverse Osmosis systems also do not use electricity, although because they
require relatively high water pressure to operate, they may not work well in some
Sand filter |
Dual Media Filter
| Activated Carbon Filter
Clarifier / HRSCC
| Cartridge Filters
| Bag Filter
Ultra Violet Purifier
Sea Water RO
Packaged Drinking Water