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Pool water chemistry

Pool water chemistry is so important because your pool water may be crystal clear, but that does not mean it is healthy.
Maintaining a swimming pool requires proper chemical water balance, adequate sanitation and sufficient filtration.
Pool water chemistry can be broken down into two basic categories:

Water Sanitation:
Pool water needs to be sanitized to ensure bather safety. Bacteria will rapidly multiply in pool water that remains untreated /unsanitised. The most widely used disinfectant (sanitizer) for pool is currently chlorine, ozone etc. Your pool water should be maintained at the correct disinfectant level at all times.

Water Balance:
Maintaining the chemical balance in your swimming pool is essential for clean and healthy pool water. Water balancing is not such a complicated exercise. It is simply the relationship between different chemical parameters. You will probably not change the water in your pool for many years. Continuous filtration and disinfection removes contaminants which keep the water enjoyable but this is does not balance your water. 
A pool that is "balanced" has proper levels of pH, Alkalinity, Hardness Free chlorine and Turbidity etc. pH is the most important element in swimming pool water chemistry. pH level is the most important element contributing to water balance there are other factors that also influence water balance.

pH is measured on a scale of 0-14 with 7.0 being the neutral point. A pH of 0 is strongly acid and a pH of 14 is strongly basic. Low pH causes corrosion of metal parts (ie. screws on faceplates, ladder rails, heat exchanges...to mention a few) and plaster surfaces, liner wrinkling and eye and skin irritation. High pH makes causes scale to deposit on all surfaces and is also irritation to eyes and skin. Proper pH is maintained by use of either pH increaser or pH decreaser and maintaining a correct pH range.
pH affects every other chemical balance in the pool water.
The ideal level for swimming pool water is between 7.2 and 7.8

Free Available Chlorine:
The disinfectant form of chlorine is "free residual chlorine." It is also known as “free available chlorine” or “free chlorine” and all terms refer to the concentration of hypochlorous acid and the hypochlorite ion in equilibrium concentration in the pool water.

Total Alkalinity:
Total alkalinity is related to, but not the same as pH. Total alkalinity influences the pH stability of your water. Insufficient total alkalinity leaves pH unstable and subject to pH bounce. A high level of total alkalinity makes it a very difficult situation to have a proper pH level. The correct product used to increase total alkalinity is Total Alkalinity powder. To lower total alkalinity it is necessary to use pH decreaser or Muriatic Acid (HCl).
The good total Alkalinity will make it much easier to maintain good pH. The appropriate range for Total Alkalinity in pool water is between 75 and 120 ppm (parts per million).

Calcium Hardness:
Water can be corrosive even if the pH and total alkalinity levels are in the proper range. The reason is water has a natural demand for calcium.

TDS is absolutely everything dissolved in your pool water, from metals to chlorine to alkalinity to sulfates and salts.
If your swimming pool TDS is too high, your water may taste salty, it may also have a tint to it. Some other symptoms include false test readings, and algae growth.
The acceptable range of TDS in a swimming pool is between 1,000 and 2,000 ppm.

Turbidity is important in terms of the clarity of the swimming pool water. water should be maintained to a level which will ensure the safety of bathers. It is vitally important that the bottom of the pool is always visible so that a person coming to rest at the deepest point of the pool is seen. It should be possible to see the bottom of the pool clearly from any position on the pool side when the pool is in use. The pool should be closed whenever this standard fails to be achieved.

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